The 20th Century - Some Smaller Lines

The Prohibition Era

"Prohibition era" has become the term for time periods where some nations introduced a ban on sales of alcoholic beverages. Most such bans were introduced in the period from about 1915 and five years. In Norway lasted liquor ban from 1916 to 1927.

The race for the South Pole

"The race for the South Pole" took place summer 1911/1912, when a British "Terra Nova Expedition" under the leadership of Robert F. Scott, and a Norwegian expedition, the "Fram Expedition" under the leadership of Roald Amundsen fought to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole.

"Fram Expedition" used extensively dogs and reached the Pole on 14 December 1911 after 57 days march from the base Framheim, Bay of Whales, up to the Polar Plateau. On 25 January 1912, the five South Pole conquerers returned to Framheim.

"Terra Nova Expedition" used motor sledges and ponies on the trip. After major problems along the way reached five men Pole on 17 January 1912, 34 days after Amundsen. "Fram Expedition" returned safely back to square one and came back to Norway in triumph. Scott and his crew died on their return march.

The Great Depression

"The Great Depression", also called "the great world crisis" was a worldwide economic downturn in the early part of the 1930s. Stock market crash of 1929 on Wall Street marks the start of the Depression. Of the major countries were the United States hit hardest, but the entire world, and particularly in European countries got to know the consequences. Austria and Germany also noticed the crisis evident, not least because of the collapse of the banking system.

Mykle case

The "Mykle case" - the trials around the Agnar Mykle novel "The Song of the Red Ruby" which was published by Gyldendal in 1956. Because of bold sexual portrayals the book was prosecuted, and an extensive legal process led first to the book was first confiscated and banned in 1957. The appeal brought the case to the Supreme Court, where the publisher Gyldendal and Agnar Mykle was acquitted.
The case was a sensation and comprehensive featured in the newspapers. Although Mykle was acquitted, gave all the attention around the the case him a kink he never came across. The trial stands as an image of 1950s puritan judicial system and society, and thus constitutes an important chapter in the country's history.

Space race

"Space race" was a rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union in the period 1957 to 1975. The Great Powers competed to explore space and to get first satellite and man into space, as well as getting humans to land on the moon.
The background was the tensions between the superpowers after the Second World War. The race started after the Soviet shot up "Sputnik" in 1957 and this was an important part of the Cold War.

Cuban Missile Crisis

"Cuban Missile Crisis", in 1962, was a crisis between the Soviet Union and Cuba on the one hand and the US on the other. It arose after Soviet Union had placed missiles with nuclear charges on Cuba. The crisis lasted thirteen days, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev ordered the dismantling of the installations that the United States committed themselves not to attack Cuba, in addition to removing their medium missiles from Turkey and Italy. This crisis is regarded as the period when the Cold War was closest to develop into a nuclear war.

Berlin Wall

"Berlin Wall" (ty. Berlinermauer or just die Mauer, in GDR propaganda called Antifaschistischer Schutzwall, "anti-fascist protective wall" in the West German language on and off "Wall of Shame") was a 45.1 km long wall of concrete, barbed wire and electric fences, set up by the East German authorities in the GDR from 13 August 1961, that separated West Berlin from East Berlin and the rest of the GDR. The purpose of the wall was officially to protect GDR citizens against fascism (Eastern bloc countries believed that the capitalist NATO countries and, in particular West Germany was fascistic). The real reason for the construction of the wall was to prevent the population fleeing to the West. Wall fell on 9 November 1989 during the democratic revolution against dictatorship in the GDR.

Mrs. Johnson («Fru Johnsen»)

"Mrs. Johnson" was a Norwegian pop song from late autumn 1967. It is Terje Mosnes' Norwegian rewritings of Tom T. Hall's "Harper Valley PTA" and it was presented by Inger Lise Andersen and Terje Fjærns orchestra, the record label RCA Victor for record company Nera.

As the single climbed the charts in spring 1968 it caused strong reactions, among others from Christian people. "Mrs. Johnsen» the «Authority for high morals" was too harsh for the Norwegian public in late 1960, and it was raised demands for censorship and ban. It was regarded as scandalous that the høymoralske establishment "far end of a fjord" could be suspected both to enjoy other than altar wine and nurturing secret hope of extramarital escapade over broadcast. Especially indignation provoked "the scandalous verse line":
"Is it from this collection hypocrites I hear that I'm not enough,
because my skirt edge is closer to the heaven that you will never coming in?
"
Er det fra denne samling hyklere jeg hører at jeg ikke strekker til,
fordi min skjørtekant er nærmere den himmel dere aldri kommer til?
»)

The resurrection was so big that "Mrs. Johnson", a time, was banned played on NRK radio.

Liland Affair

"Liland Affair" began Christmas Eve 1969. On December 24, two people were found murdered in Glemmen Street (Glemmengata) 73 in Fredrikstad. Both murdered had major head injuries, and crime scene was bloody. It was assumed that the murder weapon had been an ax. The address was known as a heavily loaded drug infected environment and was popularly called "Little Hell". Three members of this community were arrested. Two of them were released, while Per Kristian Liland was imprisoned and sentenced for having carried out the killings. Liland claimed all along that he was innocent of the murders.

After serving full sentence, he was acquitted in 1994 after it became clear that there had been a miscarriage of justice. The case has remained unsolved.

Six Day War

Six Day War was a short, intense war in the Middle East in 1967. The war was fought mainly between Israel and Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Countries like Iraq, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia and Sudan were less involved, but sent some troops and equipment to support the Arab side.

The 5th June 1967 Israel began a "preventive" attack on Egypt's air force. Jordan, which had signed a mutual defense agreement with Egypt, then went to attack Jerusalem and Netanya.

Israellightning fast attack was of great importance. Not only for war outcome, but also because it contributed greatly to the respect which grew for the Israeli Defense Forces and Israels general determination in conflicts. The entire Sinai Peninsula, Gaza and the West Bank was occupied by the Israeli army, Sinai is later returned to Egypt through a peace agreement.

Pocket Man (Lommemannen)

"Pocket Man" is the nickname of a man who, in several criminal cases since 1976, committed sexual offenses against minors boys in southern Norway. "Pocket Man" exploited boys in several places on the West, East and Trøndelag, and was termed as a series criminal. The last known case of "Pocket Man" happened in 2006. The police registered about 160 conditions, one of which was considered rape. The identity of the "Pocket Man" was unknown to the police until they after several years of investigation pinpointed a 55year-old from Bergen who was arrested and charged as the perpetrator in January 2008.
"Pocket Man" was at an early stage referred to as "Bandage Man". Police found out that this was the same perpetrator first autumn 2007.

Oil crisis

"The oil crisis" hit the western world in 1973 and was a result of OPEC initiated an oil embargo and a powerful price increase punitive to countries that supported Israel in the "Yom Kippur" war. Oil prices increased by 70 percent in October 1973, then followed another increase of 130 percent in December. In December, it was also implemented a temporary blockade of shipment of oil to the United States and the Netherlands.

In Norway the crisis led both to the limited availability of petrol and prohibition of driving on weekends. On 22 November 1973 it was decided that all petrol stations would be closed on Saturdays and Sundays and after 19:00 every weekday. From 5 December it was introduced a ban on driving a motor vehicle on weekends. It was prepared petrol rationing from January 1974, but this was never implemented. An unusually mild winter and widespread hoarding led to restrictions in Norway was abolished in February 1974.

The oil crisis resulted in the Norwegian tanker trade went into a prolonged crisis.
From this period stems the famous picture of King Olav V as a paying passenger on Holmenkollbanen a car-free weekend.

Watergate scandal

"Watergate scandal" was a political scandal in the United States in 1974 that led to President Richard Nixon resignation. Five men broke into the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate building on June 17, 1972 to install surveillance, including microphones and equipment for monitoring of telephones. They were caught in the act and all five were arrested. When it became known that all five who broke into had worked for the CIA or FBI, many began to suspect that this could involve people who sat high in the system, but not many believed the President himself was involved.

Yuppie Time (Jappetiden)

"Yuppie Time" is a period in Norwegian business and society, roughly from 1983 to November 1987. The name comes from the English abbreviation "YAP" - "Young Aspiring Professional" or "YUP" - "Young Urban Professional" or "Young upwardly -Mobile Professional ". There was a large emergence of ambitious, dynamic and individualistic people with attitudes that more than previously acted for personal gain. Yuppies.

November 1987 marked the end of the yuppie era, one in Norway, and that resulted in postwar worst recession and banking crisis. Wage growth had taken off and stock values had been inflated. Oil prices had also dropped drastically in 1986, which led to a loss of government revenues, and thus devaluation of the crown. As a result of the yuppie era, one experienced also a violent residential crack in Norway in 1988-1989. The major values in the market was gone, and Norway experienced after this several years where investors and companies were affected by bankruptcy.

Mongstad scandal

"Mongstad scandal" was the popular name used on the crisis in the state oil company Statoil in 1987-88 after budget overruns in the construction of the oil refinery at Mongstad. The problems were later substantiated with poor pre-planning, technical miscalculations and poor project management. Statoil's management was also accused of inaction and for having withheld information from the Oil and Energy Ministry. The case caused a tremendous attention.

At the first warnings of budget overruns, in September 1987, the overruns were estimated at 3.8 billion. On November 20 Statoil board under the leadership of Inge Johansen had to leave. Two days later CEO Arve Johnsen - state oil company's first director was also fired.
The final sum of the overruns were finally on 6 billion over budget.




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